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Hinged surfaces attached to the trailing edge of a wing, either to increase manoeuvrability (as on a control line aerobatic model) or to increase lift at the expense of drag (as on most full size aircraft and some radio control aeroplanes).
The simplest is the plain flap shown below:
The effectiveness of the flap at increasing lift may be improved by going to a more complicated design, although the mechanism to control the flap will become more complicated.
The venetian blind flaps:
An alternative to having seperate flaps is to mix the flaps with the ailerons producing flaperons. However, the effectiveness of the ailerons will be lost to some extent. Also, the amount of flap that is introduced should be checked to ensure that it can be accomodated along with the aileron control.
See also: Slats.