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Model Engineering Glossary: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Aluminium

Aluminium is the basis for a number of alloys.

Material properties:

Density kg/m3 2710
Modulus of elasticity E GPa 70
Modulus of elasticity G GPa 26
Poisson's ratio v 0.33
Melting point C 660
Note: These properties should be used for indication only as material properties vary from sample to sample.

Machining

I always find machining aluminium to be mostly ok, but now and again milling can just go badly wrong if the chips stick to the tool. The following list of alloys will give you an idea as to how the different alloys can be used.

Grades

1000

  • 99% or higher purity
  • excellent corrosion resistance
  • high thermal conductivity
  • high electrical conductivity
  • excellent workability

downside

  • low mechanical properties

2000

  • principal alloying element is copper
  • heat treated mechanical properties can exceed mild steel

downside

  • solution heat treatment required to get optimum properties
  • corrosion resistance not as good as other aluminium alloys
  • tend to be brittle
  • exhibit poorer corrosion resistance than other alloy series.

2011

  • free machining

3000

  • principal alloying element is manganese - up to 1.5%
  • moderate strength
  • higher manganese alloys have good machinability
  • particularly resistant to pitting corrosion.

4000

  • principal alloying element is silicon, in significant amounts it lowers the melting point
  • used in welding and brazing
  • most alloys non-heat treatable
  • good casting qualities

5000

  • principal alloying element is magnesium
  • alloys with high magnesium and manganese result in high strength but non-heat treatable
  • good welding characteristics
  • anodize well
  • good resistance to corrosion even in marine environments

downside

  • limited cold working
  • lower safe operating temperatures due to magnesium content

6000

  • principal alloys silicon and magnesium
  • heat treatable
  • good formability
  • good corrosion resistance
  • medium strength
  • relatively easy to roll extrude and forge.

6262

  • free machining

7000

  • principal alloy is Zinc
  • addition of magnesium results in heat-treatable and very high strength
  • sometimes other elements added such as copper and chromium

7075

  • good resistance to aggressive atmospheres

8000

  • may contain tin, iron or silicon
  • can be rolled to thin sheets

Model Engineering Glossary: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z