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This pin provides the articulated connection between the conrod and the piston. Note that this pin sees very high forces. Often hollow to reduce weight.
There are a number of retaining methods:
The picture to the left shows a piston and conrod with a drill bit taking the place of the gudgeon pin.
This particular piston and conrod is from a small 5 cylinder rotary engine which is why this conrod is different from a conventional conrod as it is the master.
In this example the gudgeon pin is held in place using a clip, the end of which can be seen clearly bent round.
This piston is from a high performance 20cc 4-stroke engine that revs to a maximum of around 11,000rpm